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She was widowed at Born c. Nefertiti bore six princesses. Nefertiti fulfilled a critical role during the Amarna period as a priestess in the cult of Aten.
Her cause of death remains unknown. Twosret was the wife of Seti II. When Seti II died, Siptah his son took the throne.
Ptolemy XII, their father regained power. Cleopatra committed suicide at 39 after the death of her husband Mark Antony.
Cleopatra VII was the last Queen of Egypt and its last pharaoh, bringing to an end over 3, years of an often glorious and creative Egyptian culture.
Cleopatra has the misfortune to govern Egypt during a period of economic and political decline, which paralleled the rise of an expansionist Rome.
Following her death, Egypt became a Roman province. There was to be no more Egyptian Queens. Today Cleopatra has come to epitomize the sumptuousness of ancient Egypt in our imagination far more than any previous Egyptian pharaoh, save perhaps the boy King Tutankhamun.
Was the highly traditional, conservative and inflexible nature of ancient Egyptian society partly responsible for its decline and fall?
Would it have endured longer had it properly harnessed the skills and talents of its Queens more effectively? Header image courtesy: Paramount studio [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
David is a freelance writer, non-fiction and fiction author and university lecturer in journalism, marketing and law.
He has been based in the Middle East for over a decade travelling extensively in the region, including Egypt indulging in his passion for archaeology.
He amuses himself in his down time by writing. David can be found at daviddoeswords and www. He ruled Egypt from c. He pursued his father Egyptologists recognize Pharaoh Ramses III as the last of the great pharaohs to rule Egypt with substantial power and authoritative central The ancient Egyptians lived in a society that is considered to be one of the most fascinating in human history.
The people of that time gave credence to both the physical and spiritual aspects of their culture in the Social: Facebook Twitter Tumblr.
Add comment. Publicity photo of Claudette Colbert for the film Cleopatra. Facts About Ancient Egyptian Queens Queens were encouraged to focus their energy on serving the gods, providing an heir to the throne and managing their households.
Related Articles. David Rymer BA MBT David is a freelance writer, non-fiction and fiction author and university lecturer in journalism, marketing and law.
View all posts. Pharaoh Ramses II. You may also like. Ancient Egypt. Latest Articles. Give Me History is an independent, Internet-based publication designed to benefit history enthusiasts, teachers and their students.
Site Search Search. Later, but not immediately upon her death, attempts were made to erase signs of her reign. Excavations in the Valley of Kings have led archaeologists to believe the sarcophagus of Hatshepsut may have been the one numbered KV It would appear that far from the boy-like figure that graced her official portraiture, she had become a hefty, voluptuous middle-aged woman by the time of her death.
Earlier, before his religious change, Nefertiti's husband was known as Amenhotep IV. He ruled from the middle of the 14th century B.
She played religious roles in Akhenaten's new religion, as part of the triad that consisted of Akhenaten's god Aton, Akhenaten, and Nefertiti.
Nefertiti's origins are unknown. She might have been a Mitanni princess or the daughter of Ay, brother of Akhenaton's mother, Tiy.
Nefertiti had 3 daughters at Thebes before Akhenaten moved the royal family to Tell el-Amarna, where the fertile queen produced another 3 daughters.
The beautiful Queen Nefertiti is often depicted wearing a special blue crown. In other pictures, it is surprisingly hard to distinguish Nefertiti from her husband, Pharaoh Akhenaten.
Tomyris fl. The Massagetae lived east of the Caspian Sea in Central Asia and were similar to the Scythians, as described by Herodotus and other classical authors.
This was the area where archaeologists have found remains of an ancient Amazon society. Cyrus of Persia wanted her kingdom and offered to marry her for it, but she declined and accused him of trickery — so they fought each other instead.
Using an unknown intoxicant, Cyrus tricked the section of Tomyris' army led by her son, who was taken prisoner and committed suicide.
Then the army of Tomyris ranged itself against the Persians, defeated it, and killed King Cyrus. Arsinoe II, queen of Thrace and Egypt, was born c.
Arsinoe's husbands were Lysimachus, the king of Thrace, whom she married in about , and her brother, King Ptolemy II Philadelphus, whom she married in about As Thracian queen, Arsinoe conspired to make her own son heir.
This led to war and the death of her husband. As Ptolemy's queen, Arsinoe was also powerful and probably deified in her lifetime.
She died July B. The last pharaoh of Egypt, ruling before the Romans took control, Cleopatra is known for her affairs with Roman commanders Julius Caesar and Mark Antony , by whom she had three children, and her suicide by snake bite after her husband or partner Antony took his own life.
Many have assumed she was a beauty, but, unlike Nefertiti, Cleopatra was probably not. Instead, she was smart and politically valuable.
Cleopatra came to power in Egypt at the age of She reigned from 51 to 30 B. As a Ptolemy, she was Macedonian, but even though her ancestry was Macedonian, she was still an Egyptian queen and worshiped as a god.
Since Cleopatra was legally obliged to have either a brother or son for her consort, she married brother Ptolemy XIII when he was
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Cleopatra inspired numerous books, plays, and movies. Cleopatra was charismatic and intelligent, and she used both qualities to further Egypt's political aims.
She was also ruthless, reportedly killing several family members in order to solidify her power. The only member of her house to learn Egyptian, she was said to be a popular ruler.
After burying him, the year-old Cleopatra took her own life, though how is uncertain. Some claim it was by means of an asp , the symbol of divine royalty.
Daughter of King Ptolemy XII Auletes , Cleopatra was destined to become the last queen of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt between the death of Alexander the Great in bce and its annexation by Rome in 30 bce.
Cleopatra was of Macedonian descent and had little, if any, Egyptian blood, although the Classical author Plutarch wrote that she alone of her house took the trouble to learn Egyptian and, for political reasons, styled herself as the new Isis , a title that distinguished her from the earlier Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra III, who had also claimed to be the living embodiment of the goddess Isis.
Coin portraits of Cleopatra show a countenance alive rather than beautiful, with a sensitive mouth, firm chin, liquid eyes, broad forehead, and prominent nose.
The year-old Cleopatra, older than her brother by about eight years, became the dominant ruler. Each was determined to use the other.
Cleopatra was determined to keep her throne and, if possible, to restore the glories of the first Ptolemies and recover as much as possible of their dominions, which had included southern Syria and Palestine.
Caesar and Cleopatra became lovers and spent the winter besieged in Alexandria. Cleopatra, now married to her brother Ptolemy XIV, was restored to her throne.
Whether Caesar was the father of Caesarion, as his name implies, cannot now be known. It took Caesar two years to extinguish the last flames of Pompeian opposition.
Cleopatra paid at least one state visit to Rome, accompanied by her husband-brother and son. Cleopatra was in Rome when Caesar was murdered in 44 bce.
Roman historiography and Latin poetry produced a generally critical view of the queen that pervaded later Medieval and Renaissance literature.
In the visual arts, her ancient depictions include Roman busts , paintings , and sculptures , cameo carvings and glass , Ptolemaic and Roman coinage , and reliefs.
In Renaissance and Baroque art she was the subject of many works including operas , paintings, poetry, sculptures, and theatrical dramas.
She has become a pop culture icon of Egyptomania since the Victorian era , and in modern times Cleopatra has appeared in the applied and fine arts, burlesque satire, Hollywood films, and brand images for commercial products.
Ptolemaic pharaohs were crowned by the Egyptian High Priest of Ptah at Memphis , but resided in the multicultural and largely Greek city of Alexandria , established by Alexander the Great of Macedon.
Roman interventionism in Egypt predated the reign of Cleopatra. He distinguished himself by preventing Ptolemy XII from massacring the inhabitants of Pelousion , and for rescuing the body of Archelaos , the husband of Berenice IV, after he was killed in battle, ensuring him a proper royal burial.
Gabinius was put on trial in Rome for abusing his authority, for which he was acquitted, but his second trial for accepting bribes led to his exile, from which he was recalled seven years later in 48 BC by Caesar.
Ptolemy XII died sometime before 22 March 51 BC, when Cleopatra, in her first act as queen, began her voyage to Hermonthis , near Thebes , to install a new sacred Buchis bull, worshiped as an intermediary for the god Montu in the Ancient Egyptian religion.
These included famine caused by drought and a low level of the annual flooding of the Nile , and lawless behavior instigated by the Gabiniani, the now unemployed and assimilated Roman soldiers left by Gabinius to garrison Egypt.
In 50 BC Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus , proconsul of Syria, sent his two eldest sons to Egypt, most likely to negotiate with the Gabiniani and recruit them as soldiers in the desperate defense of Syria against the Parthians.
Despite Cleopatra's rejection of him, Ptolemy XIII still retained powerful allies, notably the eunuch Potheinos , his childhood tutor, regent, and administrator of his properties.
Ptolemy XIII arrived at Alexandria at the head of his army, in clear defiance of Caesar's demand that he disband and leave his army before his arrival.
When Ptolemy XIII realized that his sister was in the palace consorting directly with Caesar, he attempted to rouse the populace of Alexandria into a riot, but he was arrested by Caesar, who used his oratorical skills to calm the frenzied crowd.
Judging that this agreement favored Cleopatra over Ptolemy XIII and that the latter's army of 20,, including the Gabiniani, could most likely defeat Caesar's army of 4, unsupported troops, Potheinos decided to have Achillas lead their forces to Alexandria to attack both Caesar and Cleopatra.
Ptolemy XIII tried to flee by boat, but it capsized, and he drowned. Theodotus was found years later in Asia, by Marcus Junius Brutus , and executed.
Caesar's term as consul had expired at the end of 48 BC. Caesar is alleged to have joined Cleopatra for a cruise of the Nile and sightseeing of Egyptian monuments ,    although this may be a romantic tale reflecting later well-to-do Roman proclivities and not a real historical event.
Caesarion , Cleopatra's alleged child with Caesar, was born 23 June 47 BC and was originally named "Pharaoh Caesar", as preserved on a stele at the Serapeum in Memphis.
Cleopatra's presence in Rome most likely had an effect on the events at the Lupercalia festival a month before Caesar's assassination.
Octavian, Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate in 43 BC, in which they were each elected for five-year terms to restore order in the Republic and bring Caesar's assassins to justice.
By the end of 42 BC, Octavian had gained control over much of the western half of the Roman Republic and Antony the eastern half, with Lepidus largely marginalized.
Cleopatra carefully chose Antony as her partner for producing further heirs, as he was deemed to be the most powerful Roman figure following Caesar's demise.
Mark Antony's Parthian campaign in the east was disrupted by the events of the Perusine War 41—40 BC , initiated by his ambitious wife Fulvia against Octavian in the hopes of making her husband the undisputed leader of Rome.
Antony summoned Cleopatra to Antioch to discuss pressing issues, such as Herod's kingdom and financial support for his Parthian campaign.
In this arrangement Cleopatra gained significant former Ptolemaic territories in the Levant, including nearly all of Phoenicia Lebanon minus Tyre and Sidon , which remained in Roman hands.
Antony's enlargement of the Ptolemaic realm by relinquishing directly controlled Roman territory was exploited by his rival Octavian, who tapped into the public sentiment in Rome against the empowerment of a foreign queen at the expense of their Republic.
Antony's Parthian campaign in 36 BC turned into a complete debacle for a number of reasons, in particular the betrayal of Artavasdes II of Armenia , who defected to the Parthian side.
As Antony prepared for another Parthian expedition in 35 BC, this time aimed at their ally Armenia , Octavia traveled to Athens with 2, troops in alleged support of Antony, but most likely in a scheme devised by Octavian to embarrass him for his military losses.
Dellius was sent as Antony's envoy to Artavasdes II in 34 BC to negotiate a potential marriage alliance that would wed the Armenian king's daughter to Alexander Helios, the son of Antony and Cleopatra.
In an event held at the gymnasium soon after the triumph, Cleopatra dressed as Isis and declared that she was the Queen of Kings with her son Caesarion, King of Kings , while Alexander Helios was declared king of Armenia, Media , and Parthia, and two-year-old Ptolemy Philadelphos was declared king of Syria and Cilicia.
Octavian wanted to publicize it for propaganda purposes, but the two consuls, both supporters of Antony, had it censored from public view.
In late 34 BC, Antony and Octavian engaged in a heated war of propaganda that would last for years.
A papyrus document dated to February 33 BC, later used to wrap a mummy , contains the signature of Cleopatra, probably written by an official authorized to sign for her.
Antony and Cleopatra traveled together to Ephesus in 32 BC, where she provided him with of the naval ships he was able to acquire. During the spring of 32 BC Antony and Cleopatra traveled to Athens, where she persuaded Antony to send Octavia an official declaration of divorce.
Antony and Cleopatra had a larger fleet than Octavian, but the crews of Antony and Cleopatra's navy were not all well-trained, some of them perhaps from merchant vessels, whereas Octavian had a fully professional force.
Cleopatra and Antony had the support of various allied kings, but Cleopatra had already been in conflict with Herod, and an earthquake in Judea provided him with an excuse to be absent from the campaign.
Lucius Pinarius , Mark Antony's appointed governor of Cyrene, received word that Octavian had won the Battle of Actium before Antony's messengers could arrive at his court.
Cleopatra perhaps started to view Antony as a liability by the late summer of 31 BC, when she prepared to leave Egypt to her son Caesarion.
Cleopatra had Caesarion enter into the ranks of the ephebi , which, along with reliefs on a stele from Koptos dated 21 September 31 BC, demonstrated that Cleopatra was now grooming her son to become the sole ruler of Egypt.
After lengthy negotiations that ultimately produced no results, Octavian set out to invade Egypt in the spring of 30 BC,  stopping at Ptolemais in Phoenicia , where his new ally Herod provided his army with fresh supplies.
Octavian entered Alexandria, occupied the palace, and seized Cleopatra's three youngest children. Cleopatra decided in her last moments to send Caesarion away to Upper Egypt, perhaps with plans to flee to Kushite Nubia , Ethiopia, or India.
Following the tradition of Macedonian rulers , Cleopatra ruled Egypt and other territories such as Cyprus as an absolute monarch , serving as the sole lawgiver of her kingdom.
Although almost 50 ancient works of Roman historiography mention Cleopatra, these often include only terse accounts of the Battle of Actium, her suicide, and Augustan propaganda about her personal deficiencies.
Cleopatra is barely mentioned in De Bello Alexandrino , the memoirs of an unknown staff officer who served under Caesar.
Cleopatra's gender has perhaps led to her depiction as a minor if not insignificant figure in ancient, medieval, and even modern historiography about ancient Egypt and the Greco-Roman world.
Cleopatra was depicted in various ancient works of art, in the Egyptian as well as Hellenistic-Greek and Roman styles.
For instance, a large gilded bronze statue of Cleopatra once existed inside the Temple of Venus Genetrix in Rome, the first time that a living person had their statue placed next to that of a deity in a Roman temple.
Since the s scholars have debated whether or not the Esquiline Venus —discovered in on the Esquiline Hill in Rome and housed in the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Capitoline Museums —is a depiction of Cleopatra, based on the statue's hairstyle and facial features , apparent royal diadem worn over the head, and the uraeus Egyptian cobra wrapped around the base.
Surviving coinage of Cleopatra's reign include specimens from every regnal year, from 51 to 30 BC.
The inscriptions on the coins are written in Greek, but also in the nominative case of Roman coins rather than the genitive case of Greek coins, in addition to having the letters placed in a circular fashion along the edges of the coin instead of across it horizontally or vertically as was customary for Greek ones.
Various coins, such as a silver tetradrachm minted sometime after Cleopatra's marriage with Antony in 37 BC, depict her wearing a royal diadem and a 'melon' hairstyle.
Of the surviving Greco-Roman-style busts and heads of Cleopatra, [note 66] the sculpture known as the " Berlin Cleopatra ", located in the Antikensammlung Berlin collection at the Altes Museum, possesses her full nose, whereas the head known as the " Vatican Cleopatra ", located in the Vatican Museums, is damaged with a missing nose.
Other possible sculpted depictions of Cleopatra include one in the British Museum , London, made of limestone, which perhaps only depicts a woman in her entourage during her trip to Rome.
Roller speculates that the British Museum head, along with those in the Egyptian Museum , Cairo, the Capitoline Museums, and in the private collection of Maurice Nahmen, while having similar facial features and hairstyles as the Berlin portrait but lacking a royal diadem, most likely represent members of the royal court or even Roman women imitating Cleopatra's popular hairstyle.
Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over her head, now in the Vatican Museums   .
Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head, now in the Altes Museum   .
Another painting from Pompeii , dated to the early 1st century AD and located in the House of Giuseppe II, contains a possible depiction of Cleopatra with her son Caesarion, both wearing royal diadems while she reclines and consumes poison in an act of suicide.
In a now lost encaustic painting was discovered in the Temple of Serapis at Hadrian's Villa , near Tivoli, Lazio , Italy, that depicted Cleopatra committing suicide with an asp biting her bare chest.
The Portland Vase , a Roman cameo glass vase dated to the Augustan period and now in the British Museum, includes a possible depiction of Cleopatra with Antony.
In modern times Cleopatra has become an icon of popular culture ,  a reputation shaped by theatrical representations dating back to the Renaissance as well as paintings and films.
Cleopatra appeared in miniatures for illuminated manuscripts , such as a depiction of her and Antony lying in a Gothic-style tomb by the Boucicaut Master in In the performing arts , the death of Elizabeth I of England in , and the German publication in of alleged letters of Cleopatra, inspired Samuel Daniel to alter and republish his play Cleopatra in In Victorian Britain , Cleopatra was highly associated with many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture and her image was used to market various household products, including oil lamps, lithographs , postcards and cigarettes.
Above the eyelashes is some blue printing and then two black eyebrows. The Egyptian Queen mouth has a black smile with orange lip printings on it.
She has a long black hair piece and markings above her forehead light those on her belt. From LEGO. She may have a golden throne, banquets five times a day and legions of loyal servants to obey her every command, but she also knows all about tax codes, crop rotation and pyramid construction regulations, not to mention the ancient game of politics.
The Egyptian Queen loves to disguise herself as a commoner and listen to what her subjects are saying about her.Talatat showing Nefertiti worshipping the Aten. He went on military campaigns during her co-regency and she check this out on a famous trading expedition. Queen Twosret was married to Seti II. The American University in Cairo Press. Cleopatra was the last ruler of Egypt before it became a Roman province in 30 BC. He has been based in the Middle East for over a decade travelling extensively in the region, including Egypt indulging in his passion for archaeology. Kennedy, David L.